_{1}

^{*}

The paper starts from the remarkable classical equation of the great nineteenth century Russian physicist Nikolay Umov
*E=kmc*
^{2} where 1/2
≤k≤1,
*m* is the mass,
*c* is the speed of light and
*E* is the equivalent energy of
*m*. After a short but deep discussion of the derivation of Umov we move to Einstein’s formula
*E=*
*γ*
*mc*
^{2 }where
γ is the Lorentz factor of special relativity and point out the interesting difference and similarity between Umov’s
*k *and Lorentz-Einstein
γ. This is particularly considered in depth for the special case which leads to the famous equation
*E=mc*
^{2}
that is interpreted here to be the maximal cosmic energy density possible. Subsequently we discuss the dissection of
*E=mc*
^{2} into two components, namely the cosmic dark energy density
*E(D)=(21/22)MC*^{2} and the ordinary energy density
*E(O)=MC ^{2}/22* where

*E(D)+E(O)=MC*. Finally we move from this to the three-part dissection where we show that

^{2}*E*is simply the sum of pure dark energy

*E(PD)*plus dark matter energy

*E(DM)*as well as ordinary energy

*E(O)*.

The intention of the present paper is to give probably for the first time a coherent accurate picture of the scientific adventure leading to the discovery of a new meaning for Einstein’s E = m c 2 [

It is the hope of the Author that the present paper will not only provide a better motivation and a deeper understanding of the dissection of E = m c 2 into ordinary energy density and dark energy density components, but will also motivate in a natural way the second dissection of the 95.5% dark energy into 22% dark matter energy density and 73.5% pure dark energy density [

Finally we should mention that in an attempt to keep the present paper within a manageable length and at the same time render the work self contained, a reasonably comprehensive bibliography and references have been adduced to our list of essential papers [

Scientific honesty compels us to unqualified admitting that when we wrote our paper [^{2}: A theoretical resolution of the mystery of dark energy” we were not aware of the seminal work of the great Russian scientist Nikolay Umov [

E = 1 2 m c 2 + 1 2 M V 2 (1)

Next Umov considered two limits [

E = 1 2 m c 2 + 1 2 m c 2 = 1 2 m c 2 (2)

The second limit is when m becomes increasingly small compared to M, i.e. m ≪ M and consequently V will approach zero ( v → 0 ) and the total energy would become [

E = 1 2 m c 2 + zero = 1 2 m c 2 (3)

Finally Umov wrote both Equations (2) and (3) in a compact form using the factor k which reads [

E = k m c 2 , 1 2 ≤ k ≤ 1 (4)

Somehow the present Author and his colleague Alex Babchin who is incidentally a distinguished Russian Israeli scientist, opted consciously or unconsciously to use a similar notation to N. Umov where k takes several values summarizing the different energy densities of the cosmos [

Having come that far we must appreciate that setting k of Umov to be equal to unity leads to the same result as setting the Lorentz factor γ equal to unity in Einstein’s formula. However it would be a major misunderstanding to think that k and γ or for that matter, the k used by the Author in [

The most important aspect of Einstein’s E as obtained from special theory of relativity is that it is not simply E = m c 2 but more accurately stated it is [

E = ( γ ) ( m c 2 ) , γ = 1 1 − ( v / c ) 2 (5)

where v is the speed relative to the observer [

Before reviewing our E-infinity result regarding the decomposition of E = m c 2 into the three main components [

E 2 = ( P C ) 2 + ( m c 2 ) 2 (6)

where P is the momentum [

E = ± ( m c ) 2 = ± m c (7)

This result is exactly what led P. Dirac to interpret the negative sign as an anti-particle energy and that long before the positron was first discovered [

E = ( ϕ 5 / 2 + 5 ϕ 2 / 2 ) ( m c 2 ) = m c 2 (8)

where

E ( O ) = ( ϕ 5 / 2 ) m c 2 ≅ m c 2 / 22 ≃ 4.5 % (9)

and

E ( D ) = ( 5 ϕ 2 / 2 ) ( m c 2 ) ≅ ( 21 / 22 ) ( m c 2 ) ≃ 95.5 % (10)

in full agreement with cosmic measurements and observations [

Due to a lucky coincidence or a truly grand design, k = 1 of Umov, γ = 1 of Einstein and a similar combination γ ( O ) + γ ( D ) = ( ϕ 5 + 5 ϕ 2 ) / 2 = 1 of E-infinity theory leads to a maximum energy density E ( max ) = m c 2 which is formally identical to the most recognizable equation in theoretical physics [

El Naschie, M.S. (2018) From Nikolay Umov via Albert Einstein’s to the Dark Energy Density of the Cosmos . World Journal of Mechanics, 8, 73-81. https://doi.org/10.4236/wjm.2018.84006